Thursday, March 19, 2020
A Midsummers Nights Dream Essays A Midsummers Nights Dream Essays By the end of Act Two, in the play Ã¢â¬Å"A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s DreamÃ¢â¬ , the character pairs: Lysander and Hermia, Demetrius and Helena, and Oberon and Titania are similar because nobody loves the other. Lysander and Hermia were supposed to run away together to get married, but while Lysander was sleeping his eyes were anointed by a flower that had CupidÃ¢â¬â¢s love potion on it and the first person he sees, he will fall in love with. But Hermia wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the first person he woke up too, even though she only about six feet away, Helena was. Helena was roaming the woods looking for Demetrius when she stumbled upon Lysander and thought he was dead. So now Lysander loves Helena while she loves Demetrius. Demetrius, on the other hand, is in love with Hermia and he has her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s approval to marry her but Hermia is in love with Lysander, so she will have a great surprise when she finds out that her soon-to-be husband is now in love with her best friend. Oberon and Titania are King and Queen of the fairies. Oberon is still in love with Titania even though he cheated on her with Hippolyta, who is getting married in 4 days. But Tiania is ignoring Oberon and focusing all her time and attention on her late friendÃ¢â¬â¢s indian son. By the end of Act Two, Lysander and Hermia, Demetrius and Helena, and Oberon and Titania are very much alike. One character loves another but the other character loves another who loves another. The magical flower that contains CupidÃ¢â¬â¢s love potion acts as a metaphor for the way infatuation acts in real life
Monday, March 2, 2020
Definition and Examples of Catenative Verbs In English grammar, a catenative verb is aÃ verbÃ that can link with other verbs to form a chain or series. Examples of catenative verbs includeÃ ask,Ã keep, promise, help,Ã want, andÃ seem, amongÃ many others. A catenative verb (also called a chain verb) takes as itsÃ complementÃ a nonfinite construction (often an infinitive). Huddleston and Pullum point out that the term catenative is applied to the non-finite complement, and also to the verb that licenses it . . . and the construction containing the verb its complement (The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, 2002). Examples and Observations She had a great many engagements, butÃ she usually managed to dine at home with her father, and that was about as much society as he cared for.(Willa Cather, Double Birthday. The Forum, 1929)Where is the politician who has not promised to fight to the death for lower taxes- and who has not proceeded to vote for the very spending projects that make tax cuts impossible?(Barry Goldwater, quoted by Wayne A. Root in The Conscience of a Libertarian, 2009)Only North Americans seem to believe that they always should, may, and actually can choose somebody with whom to share their blessings. Ultimately this attitude leads to bombing people into the acceptance of gifts.(Ivan Illich, Celebration of Awareness, 1969)SheÃ had intended to take the Elevated, and naturally she looked in her purse to make certain she had the fare, and was pleased to find forty cents in the coin envelope.(Katherine Anne Porter, Theft. The Gyroscope, 1930)Out of the corners of her eyes sheÃ saw him sit and pullÃ on his wet shoes.(Richard Wright, Bright and Morning Star. New Masses, 1939)ChainingA catenative verb is a verb that controls a non-finite complement. Catenative means chaining and reflects the way that the verb can link recursively with other catenatives to form a chain, as in:We decided to try to rent a house near the sea. Here there is a chain of three verbs: decide, try and rent, with to try to rent a house near the sea functioning as the catenative complement of decide, and to rent a house near the sea functioning as the catenative complement of try.(Angela Downing, English Grammar: A University Course. Routledge, 2006)Complements of Catenative VerbsThe term catenative is derived from the Latin word for chain, for the construction is repeatable in a way that enables us to form chains of verbs in which all except the last have a non-finite complement:Ã¢â¬â¹She seems to want to stop trying to avoid meeting him.Each of the italicized verbs here has a non-finite clause as complement.(Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum, A Students Introduction to English Grammar. Cambridge University Press, 2006)Also SeeAuxiliary VerbÃ andÃ Helping VerbCausative VerbHendiadysRecursionTen Types of Verbs
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Security - Essay Example Overseeing and sustaining these kinds of initiatives in an active environment is certainly a heavy burden for healthcare providers. These rules are in some because healthcare providers are equally committed to allocating as much resources as possible to and concentrating on the quality of care given to patients. Translating these functions into a convenient and successful security and compliance initiative is difficult (Kibbe, 2005). Second, I disagree with their claim that all application-to-database accesses by any healthcare professional are logged automatically. For a healthcare organization to enjoy automatic logging of application to database accesses by doctors, nurses, lab technicians, and administrators, it has to employ additional security and identity management solutions. Unfortunately, HITECH does not cover these additional technological solutions even though HIPAA requires that all healthcare providers do (Kibbe, 2005). When medical practitioners and other healthcare professionals within a single healthcare organization enter data freely into a secure database through an application-to-database access, links healthcare providers are authorized to access the same data as well. This approach may eliminate redundant paperwork and lower administrative burden, but increases the risk of intrusion by unscrupulous parties in linked healthcare organizations. Ensuring that applicable system events such as bo oting and rebooting are logged is important because developers have to support the secure conveying of these logs from the applications to administrators. Accesses made by healthcare professionals have to be compliant with regulations imposed across all of the different scaled and levels of healthcare provision and services. Some of the regulations present in the HITECH act and HIPAA are unclear (Kibbe, 2005). Lastly, I agree that doctors need quick
Sunday, February 2, 2020
The Lithostratigraphic Framework of the Hertfordshire County of England - Essay Example The Hertfordshire County of England has a young history geologically. The lithology of this area is largely composed of Quaternary and Tertiary deposits, with some glacial movement effects at its northern reaches.Ã With the sandy conditions of the shores on its eastern side, you might say Hertfordshire is between a small rock and a big hard place. Formations, a principal mapping unit (enquire.com 2006), will be briefly described as to their importance in this report. The status of current ground conditions will also be presented as they affect the analysis of the area. Then geohazards, or expected/probable problems, will be considered. The objective of this report is to provide information that subsequent investigations could use. As in other Home Counties, Hertfordshire shares a common pattern of development from the 17th century, except for its construction of the New River in the Lea Valley that supplies London with water. The majority of settlements built in the times of the N ormans were in the northeast. The Abbey of St. Albans, a major landowner, influenced land management strongly, including the formation of hunting parks, which Hertfordshire has had in abundance. Agriculture displaced many of these parks, and then they were wooded again. A boom in the 16th century of the country-house building came after lands were confiscated by the Crown. The number of palaces from the 1700's were many because of the "rich soil and wholesome air" that attracted wealthy people. (enquire.com 2006) Other building came along the river valleys, slowly. But the industry of malting and brewing in the late 19th century created an era of strong development. The decades since the mid-1900's has seen major changes in the landscape of Hertfordshire.Ã Ã The development of Portland cement in the early 1900's, that uses gravel deposits in its composition, brought about quarries and industry related to it (HGS 2005). Quarries have also been necessary for researching the strata of the land.Ã Modern construction has been largely in the south/southwest part of the county. This report, focusing on Stevenage and Ware, is for development purposes in the northern sections of the county.Ã Near Ashwell is the Steeple Morden Plantation Quarry that allows geologists to see the layers of rock. In trenches cut into the quarry, the color contrasts between Melbourn Rock and the soft chalk is obvious. The gray Plenus Marls and Melbourn Rock that were once thought to be the base of the Middle Chalk (HGS 2005) is now considered the marker horizon while shelly detrital rock is above that and smooth chalk above that. The eight beds of the Plenus Marls can be traced to the Paris Basin and used as a marker horizon across Europe, "indicating a change in anoxic conditions" (HGS 2005).There is a lack of clay-with-flints this quarry. Quarry section showing chalky outwash gravel of Anglian age overlying river gravel of proto-Thames (photo by John Carr) (RIGS 2003) The formations and types of sediments in Hertfordshire will be discussed as they pertain to development, and also as they pertain to restrictions of use (RIGS 2003). Besides the geohazards possible in any construction site, there are also hazards to the geology of a site from construction. All this must be taken into consideration before building can begin. Former construction through the ages has not taken this into account and there has been a degeneration of soils as well as destruction to the buildings by swallow holes and other phenomenon.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal street drug, used by many as a depressant. It is one of the cheapest illegal drugs, and can be found almost all over the world. This makes it very easy to find. In reality, almost anyone can get this drug even though it is presently still illegal. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Marijuana is grown from the cannabis plant, which was cultivated for its tough stem fibers prior to the advent of synthetic fibers. Most often the leaves and the flowering tops of the plant are dried and rolled into marijuana cigarettes (joints), or cigars (blunts), but there are also various types of pipes used for smoking the drug. Over 2,000 chemicals are released into the body when marijuana is smoked. However, psychological effects on the mind are produced by one main chemical, THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). Short term effects include an increased heartbeat, slurred speech, and red, glossy eyes. A high usually lasts approximately three to five hours, and usually consists of a dreamy, relaxed state in which the user seems more aware of their senses and surroundings. Sometimes the user may experience hallucinations, fantasies or a feeling of dread, panic, or paranoia. Above all though, it eases the pain a person feels inside which makes them forget their problems in a current situation. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In most countries, marijuana is by law illegal because of its classification as an illicit drug, but controversial issues have been established that this illicit drug can and does have many medicinal benefits. People have been using marijuana as a medicine for thousands of years, beginning in China, India, and the Middle East. The plantÃ¢â¬â¢s therapeutic potential became known in western countries during the nineteenth century. Now more than one hundred articles have been published about cannabis in the European and American medicinal journals, recommending it as an appetite stimulant, muscle relaxant, painkiller, sedative, and anti-convulsion agent. Much of the controversy surrounding legalization of the drug, in medicinal terms then falls in the hands of the government, which claims that marijuana is not a safe form of medicine. Versus the doctors who have studied and believe that the use of marijuana may benefit their patients. Not all doctors feel marijuana should be a legally prescribed medication, most feel that it should be in their hands to decide it so. Both the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s and the doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ ethics have been questioned in debates about the topic of marijuana use, this has only fueled the controversy, it has been said that smoking marijuana is risky, but also recommended that critically ill patients should be allowed to use it under closely monitored settings.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Climate is altering in a horrid manner. The alteration is influenced both by natural ground and human activities. El Nino, the Earth surface temperature increased, acerb rains and many phenomenons are damaging the environment. Experts are worried about the rapid altering clime, because the alteration may bring people many large catastrophes. Worldwide people are seeking to happen the solution and salvage humanity. This essay will discourse how human activities contribute to climate alteration, and give some advice how to forestall the Earth.Human activities in doing clime alterationIt is clear that human activities accelerate the clime alteration. The first portion of essay will poll 2 human activities that consequence clime alteration.( 1 ) Burning fossil fuelsThe Earth surface temperature increasing owe to greenhouse gases, because they carry the short-wave radiation from the Sun to the Earth ( NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2008 ) . Obviously, more nursery gases mean terrib le clime alteration. Before demoing the grounds of nursery gases growing, people need to understand what nursery gases are. The ground why people call these gases greenhouse gases is because they work like a glass nursery that heats up with the radiation trapped by the glass ( NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2008 ) . Greenhouse gases are non merely one sort of gas, really it includes Ã¢â¬Ëwater vapour, C dioxide, methane and azotic oxide Ã¢â¬Ë ( NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2008:2 ) . Obviously, because of the high-ranking nursery gases concentration, the temperature became higher than earlier. However, firing fossil fuels are the arch-criminal of lifting nursery gases in atmospheric has accelerated. Excessive human emanations besides caused 1.4 & A ; deg ; F gone up in the past century ( Pew Centre on Global Climate Change, 2008b ) . Burning fossil fuels non merely do nursery gases to lend to climate alteration, but besides sulphur dioxide and N oxides. Sulphur d ioxide and N oxides contribute to climate alteration because of their ability to make acerb rain. Acid rains which have deadly influences on edifices, trees and animate beings are besides bad for clime ( John, S et Al. 2006 ) .( 2 ) Overexploitation of the natural resourcesApart from firing fossil fuels, the ground why clime alteration in such a fast manner is overuse of the natural resources. The natural resources on the Earth are limited, no affair non-renewable resources or renewable resources. It seems that the turning population of world does non recognize the facts ; people ever exploit more resources than people Ã¢â¬Ës demand to do certain the tendency of growing. Conspicuously, overuse the nature resources becomes one portion of causing led to climate alteration. Peoples knows that many day-to-day supplies made from wood, such as documents, some apparels and furniture, ordered more and more trees felled. As antecedently mentioned, nursery gases are bad for clime, and one o f the methods to diminish is more workss. Braid can absorb C dioxide, and extenuate the consistence of nursery gases. However, the bad intelligence is that the solution is dissatisfying for overdriving the natural resources. As a consequence, deforestation exacerbates the clime. On the other manus, deforestation besides conduces to desertification which contributes on clime alteration. Land debasement can besides take to environmental debasement, poorness, migration and the rhythm of struggle, but besides frequently affected states and parts, political stableness hazards ( UNCCD: United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, 2009 ) . Peoples who live here need to disforest to gain money to do unrecorded.Outline farther impairment may be preventedAfter discoursing the human activities, the 2nd portion of essay will convey frontward 2 solutions that may protect the environment.( 1 ) Government governmentAs mentioned above, firing fossil fuels is one of the human activities that contribute to climate alteration. Factories create electricity by firing fossil fuels. To work out the jobs, authorities government seems to be an indispensable method. Nowadays, there is an effectual policy that is accepted in Australia and some European states, which named Ã¢â¬Ëcap and trade Ã¢â¬Ë ( Minter-Ellison, 2007 ) . The government relate to Ã¢â¬Ëelectricity coevals, conveyance, industrial procedure, forestry, agribusiness and waste Ã¢â¬Ë ( Minter-Ellison, 2007 ) . The policy means authorities will crest the nursery gases emanations for every mill or else. For case, a mill has to pay for the emanations if it emit more nursery gases than the cap, besides a mill can sale its emanations if it emit less nursery gases than the cap. With authorities government, people and mills are encouraged to cut down the step of firing fossil fuels. This is a good illustration for authorities to represent some policies, order emitters prevent environment on their ain inititiative.( 2 ) Exploit new energy and happen how to utilize the new energyThe 2nd solution is to work new energy, and happen how to utilize the new energy. Because people is used to fabricate some fuels by wooden, deforestation is difficult to avoid. Account for the job, to work new energy is at hand. Actually some new energy like air current and solar power have been found for many old ages, but for the bound of scientific discipline, people can non utilize the new energy good. For illustration, people have no thought approximately solar power when it is nebulose. Fortunately, PSEG Global, a company found the method to utilize air current and shop air current. Harmonizing to their proclamation, when air current power beyond the demand of consumer, they will hive away the air current in belowground caverns or in armored combat vehicles. During the peak hours, the stored air current will let go of and go energy ( Davidson, P. 2008 ) . Besides, scientist besides exploited some other new energy an d found how to utilize. E-Coal is one sort of new energy which substitutes for coal. E-Coal was called no nursery gases emanation fuel, because it was made by biomass, though E-Coal liberate C dioxide when combustion, E-Coal can absorb equal C dioxide during their life ( Davidson, P. 2008 ) . In decision, human activities like firing fossil fuels and overdriving the natural resources changed climate a batch. Merely nowadays people are cognizant of the importance of environmental, and get down to work out the jobs. Government and scientists have been working to happen the solution. Everyone lives in the Earth, so everybody has to make their best to protect environment. ( 950 words )
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3267 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? CURRENT RATIO The current ratio tells us about the liquidity of the company. It is the ratio which tells us the companys ability to pay off its liabilities using the current assets in case the company is liquidated. Higher the current ratio, the better it is. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Financial Performance Of Marks And Spencers Example For Free" essay for you Create order Marks and Spencers current ratio is on the lower side year by year from the year 2010-2009 in comparison with rivals such as Tesco Plc and this ratio indicates a higher margin of safety with respect to meeting current obligations. Marks and Spencers current ratio will not allow them to take more debt as compared to previous years practices. Although, Marks and Spencer has made short-term investments but it still the current ratio is reported on the lower side and not stable and healthy as compared to the previous years Besley, Brigham, Scott, Eugene F. (2001). Marks and Spencers current ratio havent strong current ratio and its gives a not a strong and positive signal to the creditors that companys business operation is running on a right path. The current ratio of Marks and Spencer suggests that company have not sufficient and ample reserve cash or liquid asset and Marks and Spencer cant utilize the excess or reserve cash on their ongoing business. RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED An ROCE of 16% (Annual Report, 2010) in the year 2010 indicates that Marks and Spencer is slightly downward in order to generate more EBIT in accordance with the balance sheet composition. The ROCE is slightly negative in the year 2010 as compare with the year 2009 primarily because of Marks and Spencers internal policies or due to macro factors. Companys inconsistent performance in the shape of EBIT year by year not make a significant impact on the ROCE of the company in contrast with the industry as we know that the stockholder equity, which includes retained earnings, also makes a reflection on the companys stock prices Meigs (1999). GROSS PROFIT MARGIN Efficient management strategy reflects in the gross profit sales which increased in the year 2010 with 38% (Annual Report, 2010) as compared with the year 2009. In the year 2009, Marks and Spencer hasnt focuses on reduces the cost of goods sold which gives a slightly negative reflection on the gross profit. Slight decrease in the year 2009 gross profit because of economic recession in the economy reflects on the gross profit of Marks and Spencer. Moreover, Marks and Spencer high ratio of COGS in the shape of FOH, Purchases etc and also due to internal restructuring. On the whole the gross profit margin is fair enough and one should hope that the percentage of gross profit margin will increase in years to come Meigs (1999). NET PROFIT MARGIN The profit margin on sales ratio tells us the ability of the firm to convert its sales into profits. A low profit margin on sales indicates high expenses which consume most of the revenue earned by the firm. In such a case, the firm needs to analyze and point out areas which are producing more expenses than usual. The higher the ratio, the better it is for the company. From the perspective of Marks and Spencer there is not significant moment is reviewed in all the three years. Marks and Spencers net profit margin is almost constant in the previous years and the companys net profit margin in the year 2010 is 5% (Annual Report, 2010)because of margins in selling, administration expenses, RD expenditure, etc. In that case Marks and Spencer still has a room for improvement in the net profit margin Garrison (2004). Moreover in the year 2010, because of rough economic and business condition, Marks and Spencers efficient business running strategy hit badly in terms of net profit margin. I t is viewed that Net Profit margin rate will increase in years to come. The management strategy has helped generate more revenue but there has been significant impact made on the net profit Myers, Brealey and Marcus (2001). STOCK TURNOVER PERIOD Marks and Spencer is able to convert its inventory into cash every 38th day in the year 2010 and 34th day in the year 2009, which is not good going for the company in comparison with the previous years. This shows that Marks and Spencer is better at managing its inventory especially in the years 2009. Marks and Spencers inventory management strategies make a strong reflection on this ratio and it is evident that companys operating cycle is slightly high in comparison with the previous years which is fair practice as far as companys perspective is concerned. RECEIVABLE (DEBTORS) DAYS Receivable debtors days tells us the average number of days it will take to recover the accounts receivables balance. This allows the investors and the management of the company to analyze the effectiveness of the current credit policy and its implementation. Slow collection period increases the probability of bad debts and this important factor make a reflection on the Marks and Spencer Average collection period. Marks and Spencer has employed an effective credit policy for its customers and adopted an aggressive credit policy to collect their receivables. As a result, Marks and Spencers allowance for bad debts is also significantly lower than the industry. Industry trend on the other hand is very sluggish primarily due to recession in the economy. PAYABLES CREDITORS DAY Marks and Spencers payable creditors day is in high zone in the year 2010. Marks and Spencer paid out its liabilities in 71st day in the year 2010 as compare with the year 2009 in which payable creditors day is 69th. This ratio clearly reveals that company is slightly tentative and hesitant in paid off its liabilities. The core reason behind is the economic recession prevail in the industry. Late payment to the supplier emerged and portrait negative image of the company. So, it is the prime responsibility of the management to ensure that payment is made as early as possible because it will in the end made an impression on the operating cycle of the company. WC CYCLE DAYS In the year 2010 and 2009, Marks and Spencers WC cycle days remained constant in the negative zone with -23 days. It is a worrying sign for the management and showed that companys WC cycle days is very sluggish. This is not a good practice as far as companys future operations are concerned. It also reveals that company not paid any attention towards its working capital management strategies. GEARING RATIO (DEBT TO ASSET RATIO) Marks and Spencer D/A ratio, is around 69% in the year 2010 (Annual Report, 2010) .In the year 2009, the debt to total assets is around 71% which is good as far as the performance is concerned (Annual Report, 2010). The year 2009 is worst for Marks and Spencer Plc, the main reason behind is the improper utilization of debt in order to capitalize assets. Moreover, it also reveals the fact that the management of the company cant generate more assets in response with the debt. A higher D/A ratio would place the company under increased amount of risk, especially if the interest rates are rising. Hence, a lower D/A ratio would be more desirable Besley, Brigham, Scott, Eugene F. (2001). INTEREST COVERAGE RATIO This ratio helps the analysts analyze the ability of the firm to pay interest on the debt. This ratio is especially of concern to the creditors of the firm or the banks who are interested in providing debt financing to the firm. If the company is able to pay its interest expense, only then it is able to obtain financing. The TIE ratio of Avon is satisfactory since it is showing a high earning before income and tax and a better one than its industry competitors. TIE ratio is concerned it looks healthy as far as companys future operations are concerned and it also gives an indication that debt holders are not concerned about the companys performance because Marks and Spencer has reported an excellent TIE ratio through out two years. It is a good signal for the companys perspective (Besley, Brigham, 2001). 2. WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT The primary objective of the Marks and Spencer Plc is to maintain an optimum balance among the different components of the working capital. The different techniques of Marks and Spencer Plc to manage its working capital are stated below: Marks and Spencer Plc adopts both conservative and aggressive policy to manage its working capital. Because it is an open book reality that the most of the automotive industry have fewer current assets and more of fixed assets it is good for the perspective of profitability but on the respective side if the current assets are less than the current liabilities it brings curse for the Marks and Spencer Plc. So on one hand, company adopts the aggressive policy by making profit and on the other hand by using the conservative policy, the working capital of the company is on the declining side. Marks and Spencer Plc employs proper inventory control technique such as JIT. Just in time (JIT) system works on the manufacturers coordination with the sup plier. The production is started in a manner that supplier provides raw material or part of raw materials which enable them to begin the process of production, however what makes the JIT more efficient is that the raw materials arrive just before they were to be used in production. JIT aims at combining technology and the various processes involved to satisfy or link all the essential level of production and corporate affairs Finkler, (2003). In its true essence, JIT means that a corporation should have just the appropriate level of inventory or raw materials in order to satisfy all production process and also the customer demands. JIT is also referred as demand pull system because each work station produces its product when the next workstation is ready to receive more inputs Garrison (2004). Marks and Spencer Plc uses the decentralized cash management system. In the pharmaceutical industry it is very onerous to collect the money from the debtors. So keeping this thing into cons ideration Marks and Spencer Plc introduces the decentralized cash management system which not only reduces the cost of collection but also makes a positive impact on the increment of working capital. 3. LONG-TERM SOLVENCY Marks and Spencer Plc is highly dependent on debt financing with a percentage of 69% to be accurate, which shows the fact that there is a high leverage cost being bore by the management in order to run its business smoothly and efficiently. The management not only takes the short term borrowing but also the long term borrowing in the shape of Bank loans and overdrafts, Syndicated bank facility, etc and the timing of these loans varied from Within one year to More than five years. In the year 2010, the Bank loans and overdrafts is Ã £m (267.4) as compare with the year 2009 in which Bank loans and overdrafts was Ã £m (159.1).It clearly showed that management is highly dependent on Bank loans and overdrafts due to which 68% increment is observed in Bank loans and overdrafts. Syndicated bank facility was also decreased significantly in the year 2010 as compare with the year 2009 (2010 Ã £219.8 million, 2009 Ã £781.2 million) (Marks and Spencer Plc Annual Report, 2010, p.103). While on the other forms of financing like in Medium-term notes remained constant in the year 2010 (2010 Ã £2183.9 million, 2009 Ã £2018.5 million) (Marks and Spencer Plc Annual Report, 2010, p.103). Overall slightly low tendency has been recorded in the total debt in the year 2010 the company paid off some more debt as compared to the previous year, which is very high in comparison to previous years because Marks and Spencer Plcs volume of business is high and has been soaring since 2009 and the trend is increasing. So, there is a high need to finance increase in operations with debt. Furthermore, Marks and Spencer Plc is primarily financing their activities through debt. Debt holders showed a confidence on the companys prospective so they granted a loan to the Marks and Spencer Plc. Due to expansion in the business volume company acquiring debt to financing their business activities Finkler, (2003). (b) A SECTOR ANALYSIS: Marks and Spencer Plc relates with service sector and associate with Retail (Department and Discount) industry. After the thorough analysis of the companys financial performance it is important to compare the financial performance of the company with its industry rivals. The facts are stated below: Marks and Spencer Plc P/E ratio is around $10.36 and in comparison sectors ratio is $10.35. It is a healthier sign that company produces excellent earnings in accordance with market demanded (Reuters, Industry Data, 2010). Companys dividend yield is 4.37% whereas sectors 1.15%. It showed that the stockholders pay attention and respect to towards companys policies which in the end made an impression on the dividend yield of the company (Reuters, Industry Data, 2010). Marks and Spencer Plcs current ratio is 0.80 and the sectors current ratio is 0.79 and it showed that both company and industry is in a state of slight liquidity problem due to this both company and industrys ratio i s slightly vulnerable (Reuters, Industry Data, 2010). (c) A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF HOW THE COMPANY IS ADDRESSING THE AGENCY PROBLEM. The directors of Marks and Spencer also emphasise and addresses agency problem on long term basis among the employees, stockholders and debt holders and take all possible measures to build a strong chain and relationship among all the stakeholders. The basic motive behind this is to review the strategy and performance in the interest of the company on long term basis. Marks and Spencer is a big name in the market. Company is heavily relying on debt financing and the companys management paid prominent interests to the debt holders. In the year 2010-09, companys management buy back bonds worth Ã £200m because of favorable debt market position. This move allowed the management of Marks and Spencer to strengthen its long term position by broadening the average maturity date of debt capital Annual Report 2010, Page 09. It is very onerous decision for the management of Marks and Spencer is paid out the dividend @ 15.0p per share because of economic downturn but the companys manage ment decided to pay out dividend @ 9.5p per share in order to safeguard the interest of stockholders. In addition, company grows dividends in accordance with the adjusted earnings per share Annual Report 2010, Page 09. The table of key management compensation is drawn below: KEY MANAGEMENT COMPENSATION 2010 Ã £m 2009 Ã £m Salaries and short-term benefits 9.6 6.0 Termination benefits 0.2 1.1 Share-based payments 3.1 1.8 Total 12.9 8.9 (Marks and Spencer Plc, Annual Report, 2010, pg. 111) The management of Marks and Spencer strictly followed the compensation to keep the balance among all the stakeholders of the company. Marks and Spencer allocated huge part of its earnings to the management compensation as the above table suggested that in the year 2010, company pay full attention towards Salaries and short-term benefits and Share-based payments due to which on overall key management compensation increased with 4 Ã £m as compare with the year 2009. Although, the market conditions and circumstances has changed rapidly but the management of Marks and Spencer has took all possible measures to safeguard all the interests of the stakeholders of the company and the management of the company is confident that all possible steps which will take in future put the a step forward which in the end builds a strong financial shape of the company also under the time of uncertainty and come up stronger as t he economy shaped up. (d) REFLECTIVE JOURNAL The economic system has grown enormously since its beginning and accounting has become more complex. It is a crystal clear fact that it is an onerous task to translate physical quantities into numbers, as accountants must do when they construct the financial statement. However the original reason for financial statements still apply like investors need accounting information to make intelligent decisions, mangers need it to operate their businesses, and tax authorities need this information to assess taxes in reasonable way. In my point of view, Balance Sheet provides a more clear reflection of a companys performance in recent past. The balance sheet is an ideal starting point for the analysis of companys resources and obligations including the liquidity and solvency of the organization. The balance sheet provides information about the nature of the assets that the firm uses as debt collateral and also gives an insight on the companys mode of financing (Equity or Debt). The bala nce sheet also reports on a firms earnings-generating ability in two ways. Firstly, assets of the company, which can be defined as economic resources, are expected to provide the future benefits and their worth should be analyzed very carefully. Consistent with the long run going concern perspective of the firm, these future benefits are not only cash flows but also the ability to generate earnings over a relatively long period of time. The balance sheet can also help forecast a companys future cash flow needs and evaluates the firms profitability with regards to the level of investment required for a specific level of sales or profitability. Fixed assets (Equipment, Land, Building of the company), methods of valuating depreciation like straight Line, declining method etc and inventory in the shape of food items that are stocked and the valuation of merchandise like using LIFO, FIFO etc, all hold importance. Investors, creditors, lenders and other interested groups need to evalua te the financial performance of company (in the shape of financing modes equity or debt). In addition, management itself has to gauge the performance of the firm to see if any improvements could be implemented. So, first financial statement to be reviewed is the balance sheet, which reflects the companys financial condition at a given point in time and next would be the income statement, which shows the companys performance over a specific time period. THE LIMITATIONS OF THE COMPANYS MARKS AND SPENCER PLC The limitations are stated below: The implementation of different accounting policies might distract the reported figures. Like frequently made changes in depreciation methods, in inventory valuation technique etc (Besley, Brigham, Scott, Eugene F. 2001, p. 98). If the reported figures on financial statement are out of date then the ratio cant portrait the true picture of the company. The ratio are also not debated on the risk associated the figures. If the employees or the management of the company manipulated with the figures or uses the big bath accounting technique then the ratios are also not clearly projected the companys performance. (Besley, Brigham, Scott, Eugene F. 2001, p. 98) Ratios are also not clearly drawn the valid projection of the companys capital structure or the size of the companys business (Besley, Brigham, Scott, Eugene F. 2001, p. 98). It is the reality that inflation distorts the reported amount. Ratio are not provides any appropriate judg ment over the issue related with inflation. The factor of risk is beyond the control of ratios and the ratios are provides any proper evaluation related with risk. COMPANY NEWS On 06 August 2010, Horticulture Week reported that Marks and Spencer Plc has reported 404% increment in the sales of lavender Horticulture Week (2010). On 06 August 2010, Retail Week reported that the appointment of Marks and Spencer Plc Finance chief welcomed by city analysts Retail Week (2010). On 05 August 2010, the reporter Joeseph Connor reported that Marks and Spencer Plc appointed Alan Stewart as Chief Financial Officer MOO News (2010). APPENDIX S.No. RATIO Marks and Spencer Plc Year by Year 2010 2009 1 Current Ratio (Current Assets/Current Liabilities) =1520.2/1890.5 =1389.8/2306.9 2 ROCE (EBIT/Total Assets Current Liabilities) =852/(7153.2-1890.5) =870.7/(7258.1-2306.9) 3 Gross Profit Margin (Gross Profit/Net Sales x 100) =3618.5/9536.6 =3371.9/9062.1 4 Net Profit Margin (Net Profit/Net Sales x 100) =523/9536.6 =506.8/9062.1 5 Stock Turnover Period (Stock held/(Cost of Sales/ 365)) =613.2/(5918.1/365) =536/(5690.2/365) 6 Receivables (Debtors) days (A/Receivable*365/sales) =281.4*(365/9536.6) =285.2*(365/9062.1) 7 Payables (creditors) days (A/P / Cost of Sales/365) =1153.8/(5918.1/365) =1073.5/(5690.2/365) 8 WC cycle Days (Days Rec.+ Days Stock Days Payable) =11+38-71 =11+34-69 9 Gearing Ratio (Total Debt / Total Assets) =4967.3/7153.2 =5157.5/7258.1 10 Interest Coverage (EBIT/Interest Expense) =852/162.2 =870.7/214.5 (Marks and Spencer Plc, Annual Report, 2 010-2009)