Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Managing a Patient Diagnosed with Breast Cancer Managing a patient diagnosed with breast Cancer Fungating Care context- The patient assessment and care planning took place in a care home following the patients admission due to decline in health, as she was unable to manage independently at home. In this reflective account of person-centred assessment, I will be comparing and contrasting the residents information that I undertook during my time at practical placement, associating it with the (Driscoll 2007) model, a well-known framework for reflection demonstrating (Discolls 2007) the three processes when reflecting on a residents person-centred assessment. These three processes include: what (description of the event), so what (an analysis of the event) and now what (proposed actions following the event). Driscolls model will help me apply theory to practice. In accord with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code of Professional Conduct, performance and ethics (2015) protecting confidentiality and privacy of staff members and the patient all names and the place where the person- centred assessment took place will remain unidentified, for this assessment the patient will be known as Mrs Woody. First, four weeks into practical placement at the care home, I discussed with my mentor who she thought would be a suitable patient, to carry out the person-centered assessment. To prepare for this I read through all the patients care notes, by the end of the week, me and my mentor discussed that Mrs Woody was a good patient to carry out the assessment, as I was involved in the care plan, being involved in the wound dressing, this got me involved with getting to know the different types of dressings and what they were used for. Mrs Woody was diagnosed with breast Cancer with Fungating tumour. Breast tumour is a chronic disease (Lawrence 2016) that causes depression, loneliness, but other days they might feel more positive about their self(MacMillan Cancer 2014). By the end of week 5, Mrs Woody was asked if she could be the person I used for a person-centred account, I wanted to find out more about Mrs Woodys breast cancer, as I found it interesting. Mrs Woody is a patient whos got ca pacity so she could give consent herself. It is important to obtain patient consent before undertaken their care notes, this informs Mrs Woody about how her information is being used (Bowrey and Thompson 2014). When explaining things to Mrs Woody, both verbal and non-verbal communication was used. It is important that Mrs Woody knew every detail about the person-centred assessment, ensuring that her name, place and other personal details were confidential. (NMC 2015) I found it difficult talking to Mrs Woody who has been diagnosed with depression, quite difficult than I had expected, as I always made time to have a conversation with Mrs Woody, so she wouldnt feel nervous about answering questions. Mrs Woody got agitated when I spoke to her in a clear calm voice asking her simple sentences, this gave Mrs Woody, the chance to talk directly to me, and to express her feelings. There were times when Mrs Woody pretended to have not hear what I said, so Mrs Woody started talking about what she was more interested in. I then brought her back to the questions, explaining them in more detail, by adding in things about her family, which got her attention again, which is more therapeutic towards her as it is vital to nursing. I felt confident knowing that Mrs Woody was at ease when she interacted in the person -centred assessment. I interacted with Mrs Woody for the first four weeks of placement, which helped her get to know me better. This was to support and reassure Mrs Woody so she didnt feel nervous about talking to me for the first time. It also helped me to get to know Mrs Woody before undertaken the assessment, while interacting I was accessing how long, I would have to spend with Mrs Woody, given her enough time to undertake the assessment, as I knew that she liked to talk about her family. Given Mrs Woody more time will help her gather her thoughts, without being rushed. The information that I gathered from Mrs Woody did match against the information on the medical and nursing notes. The only question that was left blank in the patient and family perspective box was systems assessment when Mrs Woody was asked this question she didnt fully understand what it meant, so I tried to simplify the question, by asking her about her physiological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual status, but Mrs Woody just looked at me and stated: that she did not want to answer that question. I respected Mrs Woodys wishes and moved on to the next questions. It is very important that Mrs Woody could answer all the questions about herself, as if Mrs Woody couldnt answer any of the questions about herself then, we would have had to make a review with the doctor to check out Mrs Woodys signs and symptoms, this could have been a result of Mrs Woody being diagnosed with dementia. The questions Mrs Woody answered were straight forward questions, about her past and relevan t questions. After getting consent from Mrs Woody, I was able to collect relevant case notes under the supervision of my mentor, the case notes contained past medical history, dietitian,doctors notes and care plans. My mentor was involved in the whole interview of Mrs Woody, who was in her bedroom this interview was undertaken in a confidential place (NMC 2015) as it was personal towards Mrs Woody. I explained to Mrs Woody in an informal manner, what was going to happen, and if it was okay to carry out the assessment today. By asking Mrs Woody if it was okay to undertake the person- centred assessment, showed that I was respecting her rights, in what she wanted to do. To improve Mrs Woodys care needs we could have carried out this assessment when her family was there, this way we could have got more information out of Mrs Woody about her past medical history. I gathered accurate information on my one-to-one talk, to support Mrs Woodys clinical care needs, I will be researching nutrition for Anorexia Cachexia Cancer. Doing this condition for Mrs Woodys clinical care, allows me to see what the problems can cause and how the illness can result in different parts of the body, for example, this can cause loss of appetite due to Mrs Woody having Cancer, Mrs Woody is losing electrolytes and proteins from the wound, as nutrition has a big impact on the wound healing. I felt that doing this type of cancer was good as if I didnt understand something about the condition I could go back and ask my mentor, this support was good for a student as your learning off another member of staff, in the care setting instead of reading journals. In conclusion, it is seen that I have mentioned the (Driscoll 2007) model of reflection. Stating the reasons why this framework was chosen as well as why reflection is important in Nursing. By using the three stages in the (Driscoll 2007) model of reflection this has helped to develop a therapeutic relationship with Mrs Woody by using interpersonal skills. This shows that Mrs Woody feels safe and happy within the care setting, and gets on well with staff members, as Mrs Woody was unable to manage independently at home due to her being diagnosed with breast Cancer Fungating. Mrs Woody communicated well with me and the nurse, during the assessment, this is very important. This shows that Mrs Woody feels comfortable and has a good relationship with the health professional staff, when talking to professionals about her personal care plan. Overall, I feel that getting to know the patient before doing the assessment, made it easier for me to communicate with Mrs Woody, as having a relation ship with her made the conversation flow more easily, making Mrs Woody not feel nervous. This skill is essential towards nursing, as I found Mrs Woody felt comfortable talking to professionals. If I was to undertake this person-centred assessment again to make it better, I would get the family involved in the person- centred assessment, by getting the family involved they could have supported, what Mrs Woody was saying, by expanding on what she was asked, this could have given me more detail about her past and relevant medical history. This makes it clear why Mrs Woody kept on getting distracted and talking about her family. If Mrs Woodys family was in the room this might not have happened. When consent was given from Mrs Woody within the end of week 4, I could have given her a date when the assessment was going to be done and should have given her a choice if she wanted her family to be present when the assessment was being done. By given Mrs Woody the choice this was respecting Mrs Woodys rights. The main learning that I as a student Nurse, can take from this reflecting practice is that (Driscoll 2007) model is effective on health professionals, as the three reflective questions make you think more as what you have to develop, and analyse what you just done. This model helped me to develop my learning skills. (Driscoll 2007) model can identify weaknesses and strengths when it comes to someones care. Developing new skills reflecting on past experience can help me achieve my highest potential, as with the (Driscoll 2007) model it has outlined my weaknesses and strengths. Part 3 Using information and data gathered during the assessment process identify one clinical care need for your patient and discuss the evidence based rationale for this choice. The clinical care need that I have chosen to reflect on within the person-centred assessment is nutrition, for patients with Cancer Anorexia Cachexia. With Cancer Anorexia Cachexia symptoms it is a metabolic disorder (Tazi and Errihani 2010). Cancer Anorexia Cachexia happens when a patient like Mrs Woody, losses weight, fatigue and feels weak, with increase weight loss resulting in loss of fat mass. This is not the patients choice in wanting to lose weight as weight loss is involuntary, it can not be even prevented by nutritional support (Mondello 2015). This condition can be seen as an end of life or chronic condition, such as, infections, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), chronic pulmonary disease and renal disease (Tomoyoshi 2015). Nutriment is important in helping patients with Cancer treatment and the development to become better (Reeves et al. 2007). Having a poor diet when having Cancer Anorexia Cachexia is a common problem with most Cancer patients, as it has been known to have vital symptoms of poor outcomes, such as decreased quality of life, making them weak and losing their ability to mobilise. Cancer patients needs a good balanced diet for the body to store nutrition, and maintain their body weight, a good balanced diet, this will have an effect on good quality life (American Cancer Society 2015). While if cancer patients have a poor diet, this can cause undernutrition, which leads to the patient having a high factor of infections, increasing their end of life care (Vigano et al. 1994) With Mrs Woody having Cancer Anorexia Cachexia at the age of 83 years old unfortunately, there is no treatment for anyone with this condition (Fearon 2013) having this condition it is vitally important that Mrs Woodys clinical status is took into consideration when caring for her, as due to the factor that she is 83 and has this condition it does not only lead to weight loss, but can also affect other symptoms, ÃâÃ Promoting positive outcomes from the health professionals for Cancer Anorexia Catherxia by increasing dietary needs, and minimising symptoms which will influence the patients quality of life (Bauer 2007). Due to not having enough nutrition in the body, this has effected Mrs Woodys mobility making her need assistance with two people. This condition affects the skeletal muscle wasting, and body weight as nutrition has been decrease. Lacking appetite is a problem for Cancer Anorexia Cachexia patients as this might have a different mindset on therapeutic options. Decrease weight loss, could be due to being diagnosed with cancer, causing the patient to have not only have decreased nutritional intake, but swallowing can also be a problem (Bauer 2007) It is important that health professionals detect and treat Mrs Woody with other causes that Cancer Anorexia Cachexia brings to her, such as depression, Mrs Woody is a palliative patient, depression can effect Mrs Woody differently some days, she might get up one morning feeling content, or other mornings it might affect her my getting up feeling depressed and an inability for her mood to be lighted. Pain is another factor effecting Mrs Woody, p ain is common in cancer patients, and in lifelong illnesses (Higginson and Costanantins 2008). With Mrs Woody having Cancer Anorexia Cachexia her pain should be well controlled as there is medicine to prevent her feeling in discomfort. It should be recommended that every patient with Cancer Anorexia Cachexia, to see about nutritional counselling as this will help patients who have this condition, being seen by a nutritional will help a patient like Mrs Woody to establish her physical function and body weight (Ravasco 2007). When attending a nutritional counselling for Cancer Anorexia Cachexia that a patient gets full support out of attending, which will include different nutritional aspects, eating problems and clinical history. This allows the patient with Cancer Anorexia Cachexia to keep a food diary, keeping a diary will help them see if there is any dietary changes, the diary will show the intake of caloric and show if there is any energy deficit. With the increase of caloric intake and nutrition, patients with Cancer Anorexia Cachexia have to understand that sometimes it does not work, with the increase of caloric it is known to help cancers. (Norleena 2011) Being diagnosed with cancer it is known that having treatment can cause nutrition symptoms. Nutrition systems can cause obstruct oral intake, which then leads to the patient losing weight. This includes, different symptoms like, nausea, sore mouth, problems with swallowing, depression and changes in the smell and taste (Wojtaszek et al 2002) With having any of these symptoms it can impact the patients quality of life. It is advised that patients go and see a Dietician, Oncology, or even a nurse, as having any of these symptoms can affect the patients ability to eat. Getting the help from a health care professional will decrease the side effects in some way, as well as helping the patient to eat again and enjoy their food. Health care professionals, within the care setting are involved in sending Mrs Woody to nutritional screening assessment. There are a variety of assessments that can be carried out for patients who are at a risk of nutrition, they use different assessment like skin testing, hypersensitity (delayed) and guidelines to institution- specific. Conclusion With the clinical care need of nutrition for patients being diagnosed with Cancer Anorexia Cachexia this condition is a metabolic disorder. It is important that for the best clinical care for patients being diagnosed with this condition, that they stick with the nutritional assessment of Cancer Anorexia Cachexia. Also having this condition the patient can talk to a health care professional, if they are having problems with eating or swallowing, also professionals help patients to set goals appropriately, which then improves quality of life for the patient. Some researchers have seen Cancer Anorexia Cachexia as an end of life condition, if they dont have a good nutrition Identify an outcome focused goal for this clinical care need, ensuring the goal involves the patient and is SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timely). The goal that I will be focusing on for Mrs Woody is a 45 diet plan, for patients with Cancer Anorexia Cachexia which will involve the SMART assessment. The SMART assessment is what goal you want to achieve, there are five main parts to this goal and they include Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant and Timely. (Haughey. 2015) A specific goal for a Cancer patient in a care home setting is to improve the increase of calorie, by improving calorie this will improve quality of life to symptom manage nausea . The increase to calorie are different for each patient, this is due to everyone being different sizes, people being taller than others, treatment and side effects. A high calorie should be recommended for the patient, as it prevents the patient losing weight (Wickham et al 2015). The goal for Measurable in a Cancer patient is weight management. With the increase of calories into the diet will help to maintain some body weight, if the patient is well enough it is vital that they get referred to the dietician, for supplements and weekly weight. The UK guidelines do not have a set guideline for doing physical exercise after treatment (Cancer Research UK 2015). But it is recommended by the (Macmillan Cancer Support 2012) that exercise is a good way to help control weight by muscle strength, and cardiovascular exercise. This will improve the patients quality of life, keeping their mind of their condition. Achievable goals for a Cancer patient, is necessary when on a 45 diet plan, increasing a Cancer patients appetite, sometimes the psychological aspect of Cancer, appetite can be affected by mood, general health and ability to fight infection, soÃâÃ using a MUST tool will help improve the patients appetite, which will be documented in a food diary. In the food diary the health care staff will keep an eye on the intake of fortifying diet, adding calories and high calorific snacks to the diet. Smoothies are good for adding in calories, as they have a range of vitamins in them. Vitamins are important nutrient for Cancer patients as it will decrease side effects, and helps the immune system (Parker 2017). A realistic goal for a Cancer patient when on the 45 diet plan, is to increase weight, and not to lose weight. With a patient being underweight it can cause infections. These infections can be hair falling out, or/and decrease body muscle. When a patient is underweight there is a high risk of the patient being diagnosed, with Osteoporosis, being underweight people find it hard to absorb minerals and vitamins (Meghan 2008). The timely goal will be the end result, which will be then reviewed in 4 weeks to see how well the patients get on, with the 45 diet. The focus within the 4 weeks is to see if there is any improvement in weight.
Monday, August 19, 2019
A Cure for Asthma While the reality of a cure for asthma is a long ways off, the idea keeps many asthmatics hopeful and healthy. A cure is far down the road, but possible and very real. Asthmatics should realize both of these statements are true and keep their feet planted firmly on the ground while dreaming of the possibilities. The media plays a large role in how people view the possibility of a cure. Sometimes, news articles portray the positive side of a cure, showing how new developments and advancements are bringing us closer and closer to a cure. Other times, news articles portray the negative side of a cure, stating how far off a cure is and showing how insignificant new developments are. This can be a problem to those who are easily influenced by what they read. A news story written completely from the positive view will give readers false hope, but a story written completely form the negative view will leave readers with a hopeless outlook for the future. A happy medium is needed her e, and to make that happen, asthmatics should keep each other positive (but not too positive), stay informed, and get involved. Asthma and the Media The Negative Approach Ã¢â¬Å"A new report, finds strong causal evidence linking common indoor substances to the development or worsening of asthma symptoms.Ã¢â¬ ~UniSci, Daily University Science News The quote above illustrates how the media can emphasize the negative aspects of the disease. Instead of being hopeful and upbeat, the article describes to the reader the Ã¢â¬Å"development or worsening of asthma symptoms.Ã¢â¬ Granted, the quote is not related to the possibility of a cure, but it could hinder the moral of asthmatics. Pointing out the current problems and setbacks negates the positive things said about the disease. Steps in the opposite direction on the road to a cure can be just as damaging if not more so than the fact that a cure is so far away. By depicting asthma in a negative way, the media help one extreme of the problem. If people have no hope for a cure, their outlook on life cannot be as good as it could be. All people should live their lives and be happy, but the media could hinder this with negative views. The Positive Approach Ã¢â¬Å"The development of new products and treatments will provide a real advantage to people who currently suffer from asthma and allergies.
Faithful and Fruitful Logic Appropriate for a conference relating philosophy and education, we seek ways more faithful than the truth-functional (TF) hook to understand and represent that ordinary-language conditional which we use in, e.g., modus ponens, and that conditionalÃ¢â¬â¢s remote and counterfactual counterparts, and also the proper negations of all three. Such a logic might obviate the paradoxes caused by T-F representation, and be educationally fruitful. William and Martha Kneale and Gilbert Ryle assist us: "In the hypothetical case in which p, it is inferable, on the basis that p and at least in the given context, that q." "Inferable" is explained. This paraphrase is the foundation of the logic of hypothetical inferability ("HI logic"). It generates the negative but non-TF device "hib" (= "there is a hypothetical-inferability bar against the conjoint proposition that"), followed by a bracketed conjunction. This is an enriched negative: "hib (p . -q)" is stronger than "-(p . -q)," and "-hib" ("dash hib" = "there is no h-i bar...") offers us "-hib (p . -q)," weaker than "p . -q." Thus equipped, we can test deductive arguments by the CI ("Compatible-or-incompatible?") method explained, and explode paradoxes. The paraphrase, "hib," and the CI method are fruitful in training students to understand this conditional, and to demonstrate genuine validity or invalidity. The logic generally taught to English-speaking students is symbolic logic. How faithful is it when employed as a representation of the connectives they use and will use in their ordinary conversation and in most of their intellectual activity, at least if they are not mathematicians? How fruitful for their education? Is there a logic more faithful and likely to be more fruitful? A conference inviting us to relate philosophy and education makes those questions especially opportune. I Reviewing StrawsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Introduction to Logical Theory in Mind (1953), Quine admits that Strawson is "good on Ã¢â¬ËÃâ° Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëif/thenÃ¢â¬â¢" and "rightly observes the divergence between the two". But he left unchanged his handling of "the conditional" in subsequent editions of his textbooks. In the review he writes unconcernedly (as would be impossible for Ryle, Austin or Strawson) of the "Procrustean treatment of ordinary language at the hands of logicians", defending it by offering symbolic logic as the appropriate language for science, and suggesting that philosophy of science comes close to being "philosophy enough". Ackermann, in the Preface to his Modern Deductive Logic, takes quite a different approach. He emphasises the "mathematical and scientific applications" of symbolic deductive logic, but says "one may well wonder" whether it has "enough philosophical value" to justify a major place in the philosophy curriculum.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Iron Absorption from the Whole Diet: Comparison of the Effect of Two Different Distributions of Daily Calcium Intake Hypothesis - If a woman distributes her daily intake of calcium by having less of it in her lunch and dinner meals and more in her breakfast and evening meals, then this would reduce the inhibitory effects calcium has on heme iron and nonheme iron absorption. Background Information - This experiment is one of many that addresses calciumÃ¢â¬â¢s inhibitory affects on iron absorption. In 1994, the Consensus Development Panel in Optimal Calcium Intake suggested an increase of the current Recommended Dietary Allowances of calcium(Whiting, p.77). This goal of this increase was to aid in the prevention of osteoporosis and other bone diseases. Unfortunately, this attempt at prevention could have an adverse affect on the human bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to absorb iron. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Recent studies have shown that eating a normal daily allowance of calcium cuts iron absorption by as much as 50-60%(Hallberg et al. p.118). Other studies examine the affect of iron bioavailability on menstruating, pre- menopausal, and post-menopausal women(Rossander-Hulten et al and Gleerup et al). One of the fears of an increased amount of calcium intake is the increased possibility of anemia in women who are already susceptible to this condition. The iron inhibition by calcium is a classical example of how the correction of one nutritional problem can be the cause of another. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The physiological mechanism of this calcium-iron relationship remains a mystery, however there are two feasible theories. One states that calcium competes for an iron binding site on intestinal epithelial cells. It is believed calcium binds to the protein mobilferrin on the epithelial cells, which is the iron transport protein(Whiting, p.78). Another group of scientists theorizes that iron is able to be transported into the epithelial cells without problem, however the iron then has trouble getting into the blood stream. The presence of calcium inhibits ironÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to leave the epithelial layer. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another very interesting theory is not on the microscopic level but in the evolutionary plane. Eaton et al. state that one possibility for this phenomenon could lie in the Homo sapiens genetic ancestry. As little as 200 years ago humans had almost double the amount of calcium intake as they do in the present, because humans evolved in a high-calcium nutritional environment. With the decrease in calcium, there has also been a large decrease in physical activity(Eaton et al.). The inhibitory effect of calcium on iron absorption could be related to the low intakes of iron and calcium in conjunction with the present low-energy lifestyle(Glerrup et al. p. 103). Terms - Extrinsic radioisotopic iron tracer - Radioisotopes of iron (59Fe and 55Fe)
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Macduff vs. Macbeth: A True Instance of Good vs. Evil? At the end of the play Macbeth, Macduff kills Macbeth in a scene easily read as the victory of good over evil, but is this accurate? Is Macbeth completely evil? Is Macduff completely good? Or is there an in between? I believe that Macduff is good, but there is definitely an in-between with Macbeth. I see Macduff as being a good person. He does everything he can to improve the state that Scotland is in. When he flees to England and leaves his family behind, some people may interpret it as him doing bad since his family is slaughtered in his absence.I do not see it this way. I believe Macduff is doing what he thinks is best for Scotland when he flees to England. That is to get Malcolm to come back and take his rightful place as king of Scotland. This is evident when Macduff is in England talking to Malcolm. Malcolm says Ã¢â¬Å"let us seek out some desolate shade, and there/weep our sad bosoms emptyÃ¢â¬ (4. 3:1-2, Page 70). Basic ally, he is feels sorry for the state into which Scotland has fallen since Macbeth has become king. To this Macduff replies Ã¢â¬Å"Let us rather hold fast the mortal sword, and like good men bestride our down-fallÃ¢â¬â¢n birthdomÃ¢â¬ (4. :3-4, Page 71). This translates to Ã¢â¬Å"let us rather hold fast the deadly sword, and like good men protectively stand over our native land. Ã¢â¬ Basically what Macduff is trying to say is that instead of crying for Scotland, they should fight for their land to bring her back to the state they knew and loved. Further on into this same conversation, there is further proof that Macduff was seen as good. He tells Malcolm Ã¢â¬Å"I am not treacherousÃ¢â¬ to which Malcolm replies Ã¢â¬Å"but Macbeth isÃ¢â¬ 4. 3:18-19, Page 71).This also goes toward the argument of Macbeth being evil. He is seen as treacherous and a tyrant. He brings sadness to Scotland. Macduff says that Ã¢â¬Å"each new morn/New widows howl, new orphans cry, new sorrow/Stri ke heaven on the faceÃ¢â¬ (4. 3: 4-6, Page 71). This is just a hint of how bad the state of Scotland has gotten. Macbeth is also evil in that he murdered and framed people to become king of Scotland. He murdered the current king, Duncan, and made it appear that the guards in his chambers of the crime.He was told by the Weird Sisters that he would be king. He was just too impatient to wait his turn and turned to murder instead. Although he did do a lot of things that could be considered evil, I do not believe that Macbeth was wholly evil. He was brave and seen as a hero in the war against Norway. This heroism even got him the title of Thane of Cawdor. Banquo didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem displeased at the prophecies of Macbeth becoming Thane of Cawdor and King. If Macbeth was evil, Banquo would have been displeased with this.He can also be seen as not wholly evil because he is hesitant in his plot to kill the king. Lady Macbeth has to help to convince him to do it. If he was wholly evil, he would have had no hesitation in murdering someone for his own gain. Due to the mix of good and evil in the character of Macbeth, there is definitely some gray area to the play. I think this gray area adds depth to the play. Not everyone is interested in straight good and evil. Some prefer a round, conflicted character such as provided by the character of Macbeth.
Friday, August 16, 2019
ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a normal day in June 1944 and we were located on the Pacific Island of Saipan. As were walking through the lush, tangled wilderness with dense sugar-cane, steep ravines and jagged volcanic mountains, there was no such thing as a battle line for us soldiers. Danger was everywhere. The unseen enemy could be hidden by the thick tropical vegetation and the pitch black darkness of the new mooned night. Our eyes where constantly looking from the left to the right as we crossed by the walls of caves looking at the trees sprouting out of them for barrels pointing back. When we would stop for the night, we cherished the passing day, for we know tomorrow could be our last. One morning as we woke up from our uncomfortable beds, the ground, we noticed a silence along the enemy front. Carefully we scouted the terrain. They were gone. The Japanese had abandoned the area and retreated to new ground. As we inspected the area where they once occupied, suddenly artillery shells exploded all around us. I jumped to the ground as shrapnel exploded and flew overhead striking the tree that was behind me. We were being attacked. Not by the Japanese, but from our own guns. The radioman started shouting, Ã¢â¬Å"We are Americans! Stop The Artillery! Ã¢â¬ Nothing stopped, for the artillery commanders faced a known problem. The Japanese were far more fluent in English then we were in Japanese and have been known to send out faulty reports in perfect English. They thought it was just an enemy trick. Ã¢â¬Å"Stop Firing! We are Americans! Ã¢â¬ was echoed through the radio, each one more desperate then the last. Finally, a message was sent back, Ã¢â¬Å"Do you have a Navajo? Ã¢â¬ I was rushed forward, almost swept off my feet. Handing over my rifle to the radioman and started talking code. Within seconds the artillery stopped (Bruchac 2005, 135-7). This was a reenactment of an incident involving the United States marines during World War II. Sixteen-year-old Ned Begay, a Native American Navajo from Arizona, was at this fire fight on Bougainville, an area of Saipan, where U. S. troops fired on their own solders, not knowing that they were not the enemy. If it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t for the Navajo code talker, more men would have died that day. This paper will cover many topics about the Navajo code talkers, including how they were formed, how the code was used to save American lives throughout the war. Finally, I will talk about what happened to the after the war. By providing this information, I how that it will strike a new incite of what the unspoken heroes of World War II went through. During the beginning of World War II, the Japanese was able to break every code that the United States created. The Japanese had more solders that were fluent in English, making it easy to crack the codes and create false orders that would sent our solders to their death. While the U. S. military was struggling with a way to find an unbeatable code, a civilian came up with the answer. Philip Johnston, a civil engineer for the city of Los Angles, came across a news article stating that the military had an armored division in Louisiana that was using Native American languages for secret communications. Philip Johnston, son of William and Margaret Johnston, was a Protestant missionary to the Navajo for many years. Philip had spent his childhood with the Navajo and was one of the few outsiders to be fluent in the Navajo language. At an early age, he served as a translator for his parents and for other outsiders and by the age of nine, Philip traveled to Washington D.Ã C. to translate for a Navajo delegation that asked President Theodore Roosevelt to look into the governments treatment of the Navajos and their neighbors (AAaseng 1992, 18). Philip knew that the Navajo language was virtually impossible for an adult to master. Every syllable in the Navajo language had to pronounce correctly. Of one was to change the tone of the syllables, the word could have a completely different meaning, causing the sentence to misunderstood. This was due to the Navajo uses of four different tones, low, high, rising, and falling (AAaseng 1992, 18). Johnston had learned how secret codes where essential for military operation while enlisted with the French during World War I. The more he thought about it, the more convinced he was that it would work. In February of 1942, Johnston met with Lieutenant Colonel James Jones, a signal officer, and was greeted with uncertainty and misbelieves. Johnston pointed out that knowledge of other Native American languages would be of no use to the enemy in understanding the Navajo language. Navajos where so isolated from the world that the language was as foreign to other tribes as it was to outsiders. In addition to this, the Navajo language was a spoken language and had no alphabet and there for couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be reduced to a written format that can be studied afar. After many hours of arguments and demonstrations, in March 1942, he was able to present a demonstration to an audience that included Major General Vogel and Colonel Wethered Woodward from the marine headquarters in Washington D. C. Johnston was able to gain the cooperation of four Navajos living in the Las Angeles area and a Navajo who was enlisted with the marines (AAaseng 1992, 21). He divided the four Navajos into two groups and had the sent messages back and forth, while the Navajo marine was attempting to translate the messages. After the demonstration, the Navajo Marine was unable to translate a signal word. General Vogel was so impressed that in February 1942, just two months after the booming of Pear Harbor, Philip Johnston was asked to prepare a proposal for organizing and using the Navajo code Talkers. In May 1942, the first 29 Navajo recruits attended boot camp. They were known as the Ã¢â¬Å"first 29. Ã¢â¬ At Camp Pendleton, Oceanside, California, this first group created the Navajo code. They developed an elaborate dictionary and hundreds of words for military terms [ (Navajo Code Talkers: World War II Fact Sheet n. d. ) ]. The dictionary and all code words had to be memorized during training for the Navajos where not allowed to write down any of of the code. Furthermore, while enlisted, they were not allowed to write to their families for fear that the letters would be used to try to break the code. Once the Navajo code talker completed his training, he was sent to a Marine unit who was deployed in the Pacific. The code talkers' primary job was to talk, transmitting information on tactics and troop movements, orders and other vital battlefield communications over telephones and radios. They also acted as messengers, and performed general Marine duties. While in combat, it was rumered that for each code talker, there was an officer assigned to protect him from cabture. If for any reason that the officer felt that the code would fall into enamy hands, the officer was ordered to kill the code talker to protect the code. One of the great triumphs for the Navajo code talkers was the battle at Iwo Jima in February of 1945. The island was so small that on most maps you couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t see the island at all. Although small, this island was of great importance. The new boomers that the United States were using, the B-29, was flying a 3000-mile round-trip when booming Japan. Due to the length of this trip many pilots where getting shot down. Iwo Jima was the answer. Iwo Jima would be able to be used as an emergency landing field to assist the pilotÃ¢â¬â¢s chances. At Iwo Jima, Major Howard Connor, 5th Marine Division signal officer, had six Navajo Code Talkers [ (Bingaman n. d. ) ]. The Major estimated that it would only take ten days, at the max, to win the battle. A month later, in March, was the island declared secure. By the end of the battle, the Navajo code talkers send and received over 800 messages, all without error, 6,800 U. S. soldiers died and nearly 20,000 more where wounded. Major Connor declared, Ã¢â¬Å"Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo JimaÃ¢â¬ [ (AAaseng 1992, 88-97) ]. September 2, 1945 aboard the battleship A. S. S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay, the surrender from the Japanese was signed and World War II was officially over. The Navajo code was unable to be broken throughout the war. Because of this the code was classified as Top Secret and would remain so for over twenty years after the end of the war. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until 1968 that the code was declassified and the Navajo code talkers would be able to tell their story. In 1982, the code talkers were given a Certificate of Recognition by U. S. President Ronald Reagan, who also named August 14, 1982 Ã¢â¬Å"Navajo Code Talkers DayÃ¢â¬ [ (Jr. n. d. ) ]. On December 21, 2000, Bill Clinton signed Public Law 106-554, 114 Statute 2763, which awarded the Congressional Gold Medal to twenty-nine World War II Navajo code talkers. In July 2001, U.Ã S. President George W. Bush personally presented the Medal to four surviving code talkers at a ceremony held in the Capitol Rotunda in Washington, DC. Gold medals were presented to the families of the 24 code talkers that where no longer with us [ (Gray 2001) ]. For many the Navajo code talkers played an important role in World War II. From when Johnston realized how the Navajo language would benefit America, the formation of the code, and how long it would take for the Navajo to be recognized for their part in the war, the Navajo where truly the unspoken heroes of World War II.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
International Case #: 6-2 T h e C a s e o f (Scandinavian Airlines S A S System) INTRODUCTION SCANDINAVIAN AIRLINES SYSTEM (SAS) originated when the airlines of Sweden, Norway and Denmark formed a consortium. 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â competition are fierce and resulted in a loss market share. 1981 Ã¢â¬â Jan Carlzon, The CEO, undertook drastic decentralization. Top-Down authority replaced by open communication. SAS Strategies is to become known as Ã¢â¬Å"the businessmanÃ¢â¬â¢s strategyÃ¢â¬ (with rather high fares), with upgraded service, on-time performance, good food and comfort. For the Future SAS has 2 goals 1. To become the most efficient airline in Europe by 1992 2. To be one of the five major airlines in Europe after 1995 Keystone is SASÃ¢â¬â¢s global strategy is to form strategic alliances. -? An agreement to exchange equities with Swissair was reached in 1989. -? Alliance was also made with All Nippon Airways, LanChile, Canadian Airlines Intl and Finnair. I. TIME CONTEXT II. VIEWPOINT 1981 Jan Carlzon SAS CEO III. CENTRAL PROBLEM Fierce competition, Loss of market share & Reduced profitability IV. STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVE Must: to cope up with competition Wants: to become the most efficient airline in Europe by 1992 and to be one of the five major airlines in Europe after 1995 V. AREAS OF CONSIDERATION THREATS 1.? Competition with larger airlines 2.? High fuel price 3.? Rising operational costs 4.? Decrease in demand for air service 5.? Price Wars OPPORTUNITIES 1.? Strategic alliances with other airlines 2.? Offer high-quality service V. AREAS OF CONSIDERATION WEAKNESSES 1.? Deterioration of services 2.? Low morale of the workforce STRENGTH 1.? Workforce 2.? Upgraded Services 3.? On-time performance 4.? Good food & comfort 5.? Decentralization VI. ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION 1. Continuous implementation of decentralization (+) Faster decision-making Address and solve the problem right away Open communication Training and development for employees (-) Mistakes or wrong decisions are prevalent Policies and rule must be reviewed and change Training cost Great deal of time in communication a.? b.? c.? d.? a.? b.? c.? d.? VI. ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION 2. Strategic alliance with other airlines (+) Access to different airlines hub Leverage Able to compete with larger airlines Opportunity to sell shares (-) a.? Control issue b.? Possible waste of money a.? b.? c.? d.? VI. ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION 3. Upgrade service strategy (+) a.? High-quality service b.? Punctual and on-time performance (-) a.? High fares b.? Research and development cost c.? Training cost VII. RECOMMENDATION Adapt ACA 2 (Strategic Alliance) VIII. ACTION PLAN Person Responsible Jan Carlzon / Marketing Research Jan Carlzon Jan Carlzon Jan Carlzon / Negotiating Team Negotiating Team Jan Carlzon / Allies Finance Department Activities Gather data through business intelligence & competitive analysis Set a meeting with the SAS Board Form a negotiating team Set meetings with possible allies Time Frame 30 days 1 day 7 days Prepare proposals/MOA/Service agreement Contract signing / sign-off Prepare budget 3 days 1 day 5 days Ã¢â¬Å"Mistakes can usually be corrected later; the time that is lost in not making a decision can never be retrievedÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬â Jan Carlzon